bluebellsCraftworkersRamsonsTree plantingRed SquirrelShelter building



Tree dictionary & Glossary


Afforestation                                    the planting of trees on previously unwooded land
Abiotic                                            of the weather. Damage caused by the weather
Acid grassland                                 developing grassland over nutrient poor acidic soils
Acid soils                                         usually formed on sandstone. Limited basic mineral content. Ie peaty soils
Acidification                                     process of a combination of acid rain accumulation & leaching of rainwater through geology & soils
Adjuvant                                          herbicide additive used to enhance phytotoxicity (killing effect)
Adverse slope                                  uphill incline
Aesthetics                                        for forest value,rooted in beauty and visual appreciation
Agitation                                          mixing of a liquid preparation of pesticide by shaking or stirring
Agroforestry                                    the growing of trees on land also used for the production of crops and livestock
Amenity                                           pleasant or usual feature or facility, pleasantness of a place
Ancient woodland                            sites with a proven tree cover for at least 230 years. Wooded on maps from 1750 (Scotland)
Annual ring                                       ring of wood laid down in a stem & branch of a tree/shrub during one growing season
Apical                                              leading shoot or leading bud of a tree - the very tip of the tree
Approved product                            pesticide which has been approved for use on the grounds of safety & efficacy
Arboretum                                        a collection of native, exotic or specimen trees
Arboriculture                                    the cultivation of trees and shrubs for ornamental/landscape use
Archaeology                                     study of ancient peoples and their living condition/environment. Excavation of physical remains
Aspect                                             direction toward which a slope faces.
Assart                                              historical term for woodland cleared for arable production


Bare-root trees                                 trees lifted from nursery without soil around the roots
Bark                                                 protective skin/tissue of a woody stem
Bast                                                 another name for phloem, fibrous material obtained from the phloem
Beating up                                        operation involving replacing failed/dying trees in new plantations
Biodiversity                                       the diversity of plants, animals, and other living organisms in all their forms and communities
Blaze                                                to mark a tree by removing bark with a slasher for felling/thinning or measuring/tariffing
Bole                                                 stem/trunk of a tree
Boreal                                              coniferous forest in the north of the N. hemisphere - climatic zone short summers long winters
Boreal region                                    forest areas of northern North temperate zone, mainly coniferous species spruce, pine and fur
Brash                                                cutting of lower branches of mainly conifers to improve access
Brash mat                                          brash placed in rows on which harvesting & extraction vehicles run to reduce soil erosion/compaction
Breast height 1.3m (43inches).           Point at which girth is measured on a standing tree (dbh) diameter breast height
Browsing                                           stripping or fraying the bark off young trees by deer
Bryophytes                                       mosses & liverworts (lichen like plant with lobed leaves)
Butt                                                   stump end of a timber log
Butt rot                                             most serious, common place disease in British forestry-fungal infection of the roots and lower stem
Buttress                                             projection of spurs near the base of a tree


Calibration                                         process of calculation/measurement/adjustment to ascertain the correct application chemical rate
Callus                                                healing tissue formed by the cambium layer around wounds/pruning cuts
Cambium                                           cellular tissue beneath a tree's bark, n which the annual growth of wood and bark grows
Canker                                              disease damage area of a tree usually caused by bacteria or fungus
Canopy                                              the upper most leafy layer of woodland structure
Carr fen                                             scrub, wet boggy area
Catkin                                               male or female flower hanging in chains, they lack petals because they are wind pollinated flowers
Check                                               used to describe trees growing slowly due to poor drainage or nutrient deficiency
Chlorosis                                           loss of green colour in green foliage
Cleaning                                            removing unwanted tree or shrub growth with bill hook/axe
Clearfelling                                        felling operation that removes all trees in the compartment in one go
Clinometer                                         instrument used for measuring angle of slopes or the height of trees
Climax forest                                      forest community that represents the final stage of natural forest succession for its environment.
Coarse grass                                      imprecise term used to describe grasses of tall, bulky, rank, stiff & often tussocky nature
Compartment                                     management area in a woodland usually denoted by number & sub-cpt denoted by letter
Coniferous                                         cone bearing trees
Conversion                                         cutting up of felled tree into desired lengths
Coppicing                                           cutting broadleaves to expose the stump encouraging the growth of slender shoots
Copse                                                another name for a coppice
Coupe                                                group or groups of trees planned for clear felling over a period of time
Crown                                                spreading branches and foliage of a tree
Crown lifting                                       removing lower branches of a tree, leaving the upper crown to flourish
Crown reduction                                 pruning back the crown to its main branches to maintain overall shape
Cultivar                                               variety of plant produced by cultivation
Cultivation                                           to prepare the soil for planting by ploughing, mounding or scarifying


Deciduous                                           a tree that shed leaves/needles (larch spp) annually
Deer cull                                              agreed & selected number of deer to be shot in a given area on an annual basis
Deer glade                                           designed feature in a area of forest used for deer management/culling
Drip line                                               the ground below the outermost branches where most of the feeding roots are concentrated
Dutch Elm                                           Disease fungal tree disease first introduced in the 1930's - carried by beetles.
Dyeing stumps                                     an application of urea/dye to conifer stumps which prevents the spread of infection to nearby trees
Dyke                                                  dry stone wall


Ecology                                               the study of relationships between living organisms & their environment
Edaphic                                               relating to the physical and conditions of the soil
Epicormic                                            twigs sprouting directly out of the main stem
Epicormic shoots                                 sprouting shoots from dormant buds on a trees main stem
Epiphyte                                              plant growing on another without being parasitic
Establishment                                       first 5 to 10 years formative period where trees are expected to grow
Evergreen                                            tree or shrub that retains its leaves all year round and/or several years
Exotic species                                      tree introduced from overseas
Extraction                                            transport of timber from the woodland to roadside using a Forwarder (purpose built forest vehicle)


Feathered tree                                     tree well furnished with branches
Felling license                                      application to the Forestry Commission who grant legal permission to fell trees.
Fen                                                     low lying flat land that is marshy or artificially drained
Feral                                                   domesticated animal that now lives in the wild, e.g.. cat, goat
Flush                                                   area receiving nutrient rich runoff
Flushing                                               bursting of buds in spring
Forest                                                  large area of land covered chiefly with trees and associated undergrowth
Forest Enterprise                                 agency of the Forestry Commission responsible for managing FC's forest estate
Forest ranger                                       government official who patrols & protects forest/wildlife
Forest Research                                   agency of the Forestry commission responsible for development,surveys & advice to UK forestry Ind.
Forestation                                          the planting of trees over a wide area
Forester                                               person skilled in forest management
Forestry                                               management of forests
Fraying                                                deer using their antlers to abrade & partially remove the bark from stems & branches


Generic                                                not specific or special
Genetics                                               study of heredity and variation and plants
Genotype                                             true genetic make-up of a tree
Genus                                                  group of animals or plants etc
Geology                                               science of the earth's crust and strata. The study of rock formations
Geordie                                                native of tyneside
Germination                                          development of seedling from fertilised seed
Girdling                                                damage to a tree in which bark has been removed from its entire circumference
Glade                                                   open space in woodland
Grafting                                                artifical union of the aerial parts of one plant to another
Gradient                                               amount of slope in road or ground
Green belt                                             area of land retained around cities which have wide ranging planning restrictions on development
Green tonne                                          weight measurement used of fresh felled timber before any such drying has occurred
Greenwood                                           freshly felled timber
Ground preparation                               ploughing, mounding or scarification are methods to prepare the ground for planting


Habitat                                                  particular animal or plant lives
Hardwoods                                           broadleaved (deciduous) trees such as oak, ash & beech, does not relate to hardness of wood
Harvester                                              purpose built forest machine that fells, sneds and converts into desired lengths
Heartwood                                            the inner wood of timber, from the centre. Mainly the most durable part of the timber
Heath                                                    area often dominated by heathers or related shrubs, on acid soils
Hectares (ha)                                         land unit of measurement used in forestry. Equal to 2.47 acres
Herbaceous                                           low growing, non woody plants like wildflowers or ferns
Herbicide                                              chemical used to control undesirable weed/plant species
Honeydew                                            sticky exudate produced by aphids
Hoppus foot                                          unit of measurement for broadleaf round wood timber to discover cubic capacity for selling
Horizon                                                 layer of soil which may differ in colour, texture and colour
Humus                                                  decomposed plant and animal residues in the higher organic soil layer
Hybrid                                                   a plant originating from the fertilization of one species by another
Hydrology                                             science that analizes the circulation of water in nature below the surface
Hypsometer                                          instrument used for measuring tree heights


Increment                                              new wood put on by a tree or stand in a year measured by cubic metres per hectare
Indigenous                                             native - born in place of birth
Inventory                                               forest survey of an area undertaken to collect data such as as condition, timber volume & species comp.
Invertebrates                                         animals without a backbone


Knot                                                      location of a branch in the timber when it was a tree


Leader                                                   the main shoot of a tree
Lenticel                                                  small pore in bark or a leaf for breathing
Light demander                                      tree species that needs a greater amount of light to establish itself
Lop and Top                                         forest debris branches/limbs left on site after felling/thinning operations

Maiden tree                                            any tree not grown from a coppice stump
Mensuration                                           method used in forestry to calculate the volume of timber at roadside or on standing trees
Microsite                                                small area which exhibits localized characteristics different from the surrounding area.
Mineral                                                   substance obtained by mining, natural inorganic substance in earth
Moling                                                    cultivation method like ripping but with an additional device to open a conduit for water movement
Monoculture                                           woodland/forest planted with one tree species
Mounding                                                cultivation method using a excavator to provide singular raised platforms of soil

Native                                                     not been known to be introduced from another country - born in place of birth
Natural regeneration                                trees/shrubs which arise from naturally-shed seeds with little intervention from humans
Naturalised                                              an introduced tree or shrub species that now regenerates naturally & is widespread
Needle cast                                             defoliation of conifers as a result of disease
Neutral grassland                                     grassland that is neither strongly acidic nor strongly calcareous
Node                                                       swelling on a shoot to mark the position of a resting bud
Nurse species                                          quick growing trees planted to protect/or and provide nutrition to the favoured slow growing end crop

Orchard                                                    park like area with fruit trees
Origin                                                       original natural genetic source
Overbark                                                 the volume of wood including the bark. Can be standing volume or felled volume
Overstorey                                                trees forming the upper canopy of a forest

Parasite                                                     animal or plant living in or on another
Pallet wood                                               timber piece usually cut from the upper part of a felled tree. Cut between sawlog & pulp wood pieces
Palmate                                                     leaves that have lobes arranged like fingers of a hand, i.e. horse chestnut
Park                                                         designed area of amenity grassland with mixed/scattered broadleave/conifer and shrub plantings
Peat                                                          is a soil containg vegetable matter decomposed by water & partly carbonised
Peaty gley                                                  wet imperfectly draining soil type in which a peat layer less than 45cm overlies a mineral soil
Pedunculate                                              describing fruits, which are borne on a stalk (a peduncle)
Pepperpot                                                 handheld container used to apply the correct dosage of granular herbicide
Perennials                                                  plants that live for more than two years, usually flowering each year
Phenotype                                                 genetic make-up of a tree & the environment it is growing in. Interaction between the two effects
Phloem                                                      tissue in trees that conducts synthesized food substances to all parts of the tree
Photosynthesis                                           organic compounds from carbon dioxide & water creating sugars as food for the growing plant
Pinetum                                                      botanical collection of conifers - not just pines
Pioneer species                                           the first plants to colonise bare land
Plantation                                                   woodland containing newly planted trees
Podzol                                                        soil type with surface layer of acid humus which underneath has a severely leached mineral soil
Pole length                                                  tree felled that has been snedded
Policies                                                       old woodland around mansions in Scotland
Pollard                                                        tree that has all of its upper branches removed, usually in residential areas
Pollen                                                         fertilizing (male cells) powder
Pollination                                                   pollen carried from the male part of a flower to the female part of a flower
Porous                                                        permeable to air, water or other fluids
Primary woodland                                       woodland that has continuous cover of native trees throughout its history
Processor                                                    purpose built forest machine that converts pole length timber by snedding & sectioning
Propagation                                                 regeneration of new plants by means of other than seed - root cuttings
Provenance                                                 place of origin of tree stock. Plants used in native planting schemes need to be sourced locally
Pulpwood                                                   small diameter round wood destined to be fragmented to produce, paper pulp & building board
p-year                                                        designates the planting year of a forest or plantation.('p' should always be written in lower case)


Quarter                                                       sawing method of sawmilling timber radially to show attractive markings. It also can reduce shrinkage


Rack                                                           route created amongst standing trees for thinning or felling operations
Rainforest                                                    tropical, evergreen forest with no dry season
Rank vegetation                                           wild vegetation not being managed, dominated by coarse species of grass
Refugia                                                        inaccesible places in the landscape containing natural regeneration of vegetation, trees/shrubs
Residual herbicide                                       chemical remaining active in the soil to treat or affect growing weeds
Restocking                                                  planting operation after clearfelling
Respace                                                      to selectively remove trees that are impeding the growth of others
Respiration                                                  the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from the plant/tree
Ride                                                            designed feature that remained unplanted for access, fire breaks, extraction or shooting
Ring shake                                                   timber that has splitting along the annual rings
Riparian                                                       zones of or on the river-bank/Water courses
Ripping                                                        cultivation method to break into sub-soil using a tine. i.e. iron pan soils
Risk assessments                                          careful examination of a planned operation to assess the level of risk & injury to operatives/public
Rotation                                                        the length of time from planting to felling operations
Round wood                                                 logs & pulp wood pieces
Runoff                                                          gravity flow of water in open channels


Salmonids                                                     salmon, brown trout, sea trout,grayling, powan and char belonging to the Salmonidae family
Sapwood                                                      wood carrying sap on the outermost annual rings of trees
Saprophyte                                                   vegetable organism living on dead organic matter
Saproxylic                                                     invertebrates which live in and feed on the decaying matter of old trees
Scarification                                                  cultivation method used on clear fell sites for restocking (replanting)
Scree                                                            small loose stones on mountain slopes
Screefing                                                       removing ground vegetation prior to planting, to reduce initial weed competition
Scrub                                                            area of poorly formed trees/shrubs unsuitable for commercial use - mainly wildlife
Secondary woodland                                     woodland occupying a site that has not been wooded continuously since the last ice age
Seedling                                                         young tree grown from seed in a nursery prior to be transplanted or lined out for a further year or two
Selective felling                                               thinning particular trees of commercial value
Semi Nat.Woodland                                      natural characteristics of mainly native species,may have been originally planted for wood production
Senescence                                                   annual ageing process in autumn of which parts of plants wither and die
Sessile                                                           describing fruits which are borne on a stalk
Shade bearer                                                 a tree species that will grow in the shade of others
Shake                                                            timber cracks due to stresses of growth or drying of timber
Shrub                                                             a woody plant, much branched and smaller than trees - less than 4.5m (15ft) tall
Silvaculture                                                     the art and science of growing trees
Skidder                                                          tractor & mounted winch that extracts timber from the forest in pole length for conversion at roadside
Skyline                                                           overhead line wire extraction method used on steep slopes or on unfavourable ground conditions
Snedding                                                        the technique of removing branches from a felled tree
Softwoods                                                      comes from coniferous trees such as, pine, fur, spruce and larch
Species                                                           the basic unit of classification
Spoil                                                               excavated material from drains etc
Spot weed                                                      application of chemical treated on competing vegetation around newly planted tree
Spring wood                                                   thin-walled cells laid down in stems & branches in the early part of growing
Standard                                                         transplanted tree measuring 6ft from the nursery for amenity purposes
Standing sale                                                   sale of standing trees to the buyer based on the standing volume assessment
Standing volume                                              measurement of trees taken before felling to forecast income from standing sale. m3 over bark
Stem                                                               living trunk of a tree
Stocking                                                         agreed stocking density in SWGS contract maybe 2,400 trees/ha or 1600 trees/ha
Stolon                                                             horizontal growing stem
Stool                                                               the stump or base of a tree/shrub, from which new shoots can grow
Sub-soiling                                                      soil cultivation method used on compacted soil sites
Succession                                                      changes in vegetation species over time - leading to climax vegetation.ie. from plants to trees
Sucker                                                            shoot arising from the roots or at the stem base
Summer wood                                                 thick walled cells laid out down in the middle of the growing season in stems & branches
Sweep                                                             natural bend in a log or tree
Swipe                                                              usually tractor mounted implement to cut grass verges and dense vegetation


Taper                                                               the reduction of girth from the base of a tree or pole length log
Taproot                                                            main central down growing root. These grow deeper than lateral roots
Tariff                                                                system method of assessing the standing volume before selling as a standing sale
Topography                                                      natural & artificial features of the land, or ground conditions
TPO Tree Preservation Order                           order placed by the local planning authority to protect trees in urban areas
Transplant                                                         tree removed from the nursery at a given time and planted in the forest


Underbark                                                         volume of wood excluding the bark
Undercut tree                                                     nursery stock with trimmed roots whilst still in the ground. To promote healthy fibrous roots
Underplanting                                                     trees planted under existing woodland usually to create tree diversity. Also called enrichment planting
Understorey                                                       tree or/and shrub below the main canopy


Veneer wood                                                     thin slice of wood used to decorate or to face less valuable wood
Veteran tree                                                       imprecise term for a very old tree
Virgin forest                                                       not yet cultivated, explored or exploited. Occurring naturally


Watertable                                                         level within the ground below which the pores of soil & rock are saturated with water
Wet flush                                                            area of soil in which nutrients accumulate due to water in flow
Whip                                                                  transplanted tree measuring 120-180cm
Whorl                                                                structure such as buds & leaves arising three or more at a time around a stem
Windblow                                                          trees wholly or partly blown down. Also called windthrow
Windfirm                                                            trees/plantations, because of species, soil or relative exposure are unlikely to windthrow
Wood or Woodland                                           smaller area than a forest, usually made up of broadleaves. The words are interchangeable though.
Wood-pasture                                                    wooded land regularly grazed


Xylem                                                                 living woody tissue


Yield class                                                          system of assessing the productivity of a crop of trees based upon height & age


Zebra                                                                 Uncommon in British woodlands, sometimes occurs as a passage migrant