Country Winemaking Recipes
clear & dark demijohns
Airlocks & rubber bungs
1m clear siphon tube
1 Gallon+ Plastic buckets or containers
1 Gallon+ Metal pans
Wooden kitchen spoons / stirrers
Teaspoon & Tablespoon
Common ingredients needed
Wine yeast nutrient
Citric Acid (Fresh lemons will sometimes do)
Granulated white sugar
White or red grape concentrate (Pure supermarket grape juice could be used as an alternative)
Birch Sap Wine
250 ml grape concentrate
1 tsp citric acid
birch sap ideally in March, when the sap is rising in the tree. Ideally a
hole drilled just under the bark,
where the tree becomes softer, with the hole facing upwards. Minimum of 2 foot of clear plastic tubing is ideal
for collecting the sap, which can be the same size as the hole or use a rubber bung to get a tighter fit in the
drilled hole, therefore use a smaller diameter tubing.
into a plastic container (ideally 5 litre) which should then be transferred
at home into a clean and
sterilised demi-john. The sap does give a sweet drink which can be drunk without being used in the winemaking
process and remember that the hole should be plugged, either with a removable bung for future collection or
with a snug fitting permanent 'repair' such as a stopper also made of birch.
Freshly collected hawthorn berries
0.5 Pint White grape juice concentrate
2.5lb White sugar
1 tsp Pectolase
1 tbs Citric Acid
1 Gallon Water
1 Campden Tablet
Rinse the freshly collected Hawthorn Berries (ideally september onwards) then place them
in a large bowl and pour over 6 pints of boiling water. When they have cooled, mash them well and
stir in the pectolase, crushed campden tablet and citric acid.
for 24 hours then add the grape juice, sugar, yeast & nutrient. Now leave
covered in the
bowl for 5 days (in a warm place) and strain the lquid into a 1 gallon demijohn, top up to the base of
the neck with cold water and fit an airlock.
Elderberry Wine (September, October, November)
3.5lb White sugar
1 tsp Citric Acid
1 Gallon Water
the required quantity of elderberries, get a large container or two and, using
a fork, carefully
strip the berries off the stalks into one of the containers (Use the other for the waste to compost or
put on an open fire - very therapeutic!)
until the required amount is reached then mash them to a pulp. Pour on approx
of boiling water and let it cool before you add the citric acid, the yeast and the nutrient.
covered in a warm place for three days, stirring every day, then put the sugar
in a bucket or container
and strain the liquid on to the sugar and stir vigorously until the sugar is dissolved.
this into a dark coloured demijohn, as this helps to retain the colour which
may be lost if a clear
jar is used. Fit an airlock and leave in a warm place.
elderberry wine can be quite vigorous when fermentation starts so use the
0.75 of a gallon
of water that was boiled originally, only top up when fermentation has subsided slightly.
wine can take quite a while for fermentation to slow. It is recommended to
keep the bottled wine
for at least six months before drinking.
Apple Wine (August, September, October)
collected apples (or windfall)
2.5lb White sugar
0.25 pint white grape concentrate
1 tsp Citric Acid
1 Gallon Water
for using up that heavy crop of apples! Weigh out the required quantity of
apples. Fill a large pan
with one gallon of water and bring to the boil.
Turn down the heat to simmer, then attack the apples!
Wash them then cut up and use everything, do not peel, use skins & brown patches (though good to
remove the pips). Simmer the apples for about quarter of an hour, then strain the resulting liquid onto the
sugar in another container and add the rind of the lemon, together with the grape juice, yeast and nutrient.
Cover the bucket with a tea towel or similar and leave in a warm place for 24 hours.
Pour into a clear demijohn and fit an airlock.
wine can be very vigorous at the start of fermenting, so do not fill the jar
beyond the base of the
neck or you could end up with an airlock full of mashed apple liquid and need to pour some out! ***
to ferment for 4 weeks before siphoning this into another clean demijohn and
airlock to continue
fermenting. Best left for 6 months before bottling and even thinking about drinking!
Oak Leaf Wine (May, June is best)
freshly collected oak leaves
3lb White sugar
1 tsp Citric Acid
1 Gallon Water
to 6 pints of water in a large pan and bring to the boil, dissolving the sugar
in it. When this clears, pour
the boiling water over the oak leaves and leave this to infuse overnight. Then strain in to a demijohn, adding the
citric acid, yeast and nutrient and give it a good shake! (with your hand over the top of the jar!) Top up the demijohn
to the bottom of the neck with cold water, fit an airlock and leave in a warm place to ferment. Oak leaf wine benefits
racking again, after it has cleared the first time.
Sloe Gin (September, October)
preserving jar, half filled with sloe berries
125g castor sugar
Almond essence (optional)
1-2 Cinnamon sticks (optional)
pick the sloes after the first frost and prick each berry 2 or 3 times before
adding or returning to the
jar. (Old folklore suggests it is bad luck to prick them with a fork and a thorn from the blackthorn should be used)
A skewer or carefully with a knife should suffice.
Add the castor sugar then top up with dry gin (no need to use expensive gin!!)
Shake the jar well, daily, until the sugar is dissolved.
week or two, or at the start if you prefer, add a few drops of almond essence
or a couple of cinnamon sticks,
broken in half. It is useful to strain the liquid before final bottling. Sloe gin made mid September to mid October should
be fine for Christmas.
Rowan Berry Wine (September, October)
collected rowan berries
3lb White sugar
1 tbs Citric Acid
0.5 pint Concentrated red grape juice
1 Gallon Water
rowan berries and then pour 1 gallon of boiling water over them and leave
to stand for four days,
covered with a cloth or tea towel. Then add the grape concentrate, wheat, citric acid and sugar, stirring well
until all the sugar is dissolved. Then you can add the yeast and nutrient. Leave this for a further 16 days! and
allow it to ferment, closely covered before straining the liquid into a fermenting jar and fitting an airlock.
Elderflower Cordial (June, July)
1 lemon (sliced)
1.5 kg (3.5 lbs) of sugar
2 tsp of citric acid
1.2 ltr (2.5 pints) boiling water
Boil 1.2 ltr (2.5 pints) of water
Fill a suitable large bowl with the other ingredients.
Pour the water over the ingredients, stirring until the sugar has dissolved.
have to skim the surface of the water to remove any scum that forms
Ideally cover the bowl with something like a tea towel.
Stir the mixture twice a day for five days.
days, strain the mixture though a fine sieve or muslin and then strain into
sterile screw topped bottles.
Refrigerate. (alternatively, use plastic screw top bottles and freeze immediately.
Dilute with 5 parts water to serve.
extremely comprehensive and invaluable list was compiled by James Smith and
contains all you need to produce
a wonderful varied range of harvest wines.
General Fresh Fruit Wine Making
These are general procedures and the method may vary for certain types of wines, but generally you won't go wrong if you follow these procedures.
The first step is to decide what type of wine you are going to make. Once this has been established look at least 2 or 3 different recipes, or follow one that you had success with in the past. The purpose of looking at 2 or 3 different recipes is to see what the various wine makers change in the recipe and by how much.
Some wine makers may add additional fruit, or variations of the principle acids in winemaking for example.
Based on this research you can decide what ingredients make most sense for your recipe.
Once you have decided upon a recipe to follow, write it down. Record your recipe, this will provide a record of how you made your batch of wine.
-Primary fermentor - Sterilised food bucket with lid & airlock.
-Secondary fermentor - Sterilised 5 litre glass or plastic demijohn and airlock
-Pillow case / muslin
-500ml to 1 litre bottles for bottling
-Heat pad if room below 20'C
-Hydrometer for SG (Standard Gravity) Readings & 250ml measuring cylinder
-(Optional) pH indicator paper
-Pectic enzyme: when using liquid
use 5 to 10 drops in fruit wines instead of teaspoon measure listed in most
The teaspoon measures in recipes are for powered pectic enzyme.
-Campden Tablets: 5 campden tablets are the same as 1/4 teaspoon of metabisulphite.
Add to ingredients and allow 24 hours prior to adding yeast. The tablet kills off any natural yeasts present in the ingredients.
-Stabiliser: A common wine stabilizer to stop continued fermentation is Potassium Sorbate - do not over use it - recommended dosage is 1/2 teaspoon per 5 litres.
-White or red grape concentrate:
140ml to 280ml per 5 litres to add body and bouquet to the wine.
-Raisins: 250g per 5 litres to add body and sweetness. Sultanas for white or rose wines and raisins for red wines.
-Bananas: 1.3kg fresh bananas to add body to wines or add banana wine to wine lacking body.
-Acid: 1 tsp acid blend or citric acid (or use the juice of lemon)
-Tannin / Tea: A dry tea wine is useful for blending with other wines that may seem a little flat or dull, due to low tannin content. Alternatively tannin powder or 250ml of tea can be added with ingredients prior to fermentation.
With apples, unless varieties
are specified, the more acid and sour varieties are preferred and the sweeter
eating varieties are to be avoided. Delicious apples should be avoided. Many
fresh fruit wines lack body and could use one or more of the above ingredients
to improve the quality and flavour.
Most fruit wines need a touch of sweetness in them. Sweeten wines at bottling time.
1 Wash fruit, remove stones,
pips, seeds and bruised parts.
2 Freeze & thaw / chop / smash / chop and simmer fruit and put into primary fermentor.
3 Add 2 litres of cool boiled water, 1 crushed campden tablet, and all ingredients apart from yeast and yeast nutrient.
4 (Optional step - Acid pH should be 3 to 4, add more acid to lower pH if needed)
5 SG reading should be 1.080 to 1.090, adjust with sugar, fruit and water
6 Leave for 24 hours for the campden tablet to breakdown and then add the yeast and nutrient
7 Stir daily to agitate pulp
8 After 5 days, strain through a pillow case (when small particle must) or muslin (for more coarse must) to remove pulp, then pour into secondary fermentor
9 Top off to neck with cool boiled water and leave to ferment for 3 weeks,
10 Taste and take SG reading
11 If greater than 1.000 or if still too sweet, leave for further fermentation
12 If too dry / sour, or not sweet enough, add 100g to 300g sugar (to taste or required SG) and potassium sorbate (to stop further fermentation), and siphon from yeast.
13 If struggling to clear, add fining agent. Should have an SG of about 1.000 at time of bottling.
14 Siphon from yeast into bottles.
Specific Gravity & Alcohol Content
Original Gravity (OG) - Measurement before adding yeast.
Terminal Gravity (TG) - Measurement after fermentation is complete.
% Alcohol = (((1.05 x (OG - TG)) / TG) / 0.79)
|Wines||Fruit||Grape*||Sugar||Pectolase||Acid blend / citric acid / juice of 1 lemon||Tannin (or 250ml tea)|
|Apricot Wine||2kg stoned apricots||250ml white grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp||¼ tsp|
|Apricot Wine 2||2kg stoned apricots||250g sultanas||800g||1 tsp||Juice of 2 lemons||¼ tsp|
|Apricot Wine 3||1 kg Dried Chopped Apricots||250g Sultanas||800g brown||1 tsp||1 tsp||¼ tsp or tea|
|Apricot & Date Wine||1 kg Chopped Dates, 500g Chopped Dried Apricots, 250g barley||800g brown||1 tsp||Juice - 2 lemons & 2 oranges||¼ tsp or tea|
|Apricot, Raspberry & Elderberry Rose Wine||500g Chopped Dried Apricots, 170g raspberries, 85g dried elderberries, 250ml rose petals||250ml white grape concentrate||800g brown||1 tsp||¼ tsp or tea|
|2.5kg apples, mixed varieties||225g Sultanas||800g||1/2 tsp||1 lemon zest & juice|
|Apple Wine (Medium bodied)||5.5kg apples, mixed varieties||800g||1 tsp||1 ½ tsp. acid blend + 1 tsp. ascorbic acid||¼ tsp|
|Apple Wine (Spiced)||5.5kg mixed Fuji and Gala apples, 2g cloves, 2 x 3 inch cinnamon sticks, broken into pieces, 14g shredded ginger root||250g chopped golden raisins||400g brown||3 tsp|
|Apple Wine||3kg Crushed Apples||250ml white grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp||Yes|
|Apple Wine||5 Litres Juice||300g||1 tsp||1 ½ tsp. acid blend + 1 tsp. ascorbic acid||¼ tsp|
|Apple & Raspberry Cider||5 Litres Apple & Raspberry Juice||300g|
|Barley Wine||500g Barley||350g Raisins||1kg||1 tsp||Juice of 2 Lemons|
Dewberry / Raspberry Wine
|1.5kg Fruit||250ml red grape concentrate||700g||1/2 tsp||1/2 tsp|
|Banana Wine||2 kg Fresh Bananas / 400g dried (boil 30mins, strain & discard pulp)||350g Sultanas /
250ml white grape concentrate
|800g||1 tsp||2 tsp acid blend / citric acid||¼ tsp|
|Banana Wine (medium bodied)||400g dried Bananas (boil 30mins, strain & discard pulp)||250g chopped raisins||1kg brown sugar||½ tsp||2 tsp citric acid|
|Banana Wine (medium bodied 2)||1.5 kg Fresh Bananas (boil 30mins, strain & discard pulp)||250g chopped sultanas||900g
||½ tsp||1 lemon &
1 orange (juice only)
|Banana Wine (heavy bodied)||2 kg Fresh Bananas (boil 30mins, strain & discard pulp)||250g chopped sultanas||1kg
||1 tsp||1 lemon &
|Banana Wine (heavy bodied 2)||1.5 kg Fresh Bananas (boil 30mins, strain & discard pulp)||500g chopped sultanas||900g||1 tsp||1&1/4 tsp. acid blend||¼ tsp|
|Blackcurrant Wine||1.5 kg Blackcurrants||250ml red grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp||Yes|
|Blueberries||2kg Blueberries||250ml red grape concentrate or 300g raisins||800g||1 tsp||1 ½ tsp|
|Cherry Wine||2 Kg Stoned Cherries||250ml red grape concentrate||825g||1 tsp||2 tsp||¼ tsp|
|Cranberry Wine||1.5kg Cranberries||250ml red grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp||Yes|
|Cranberry & Raisin Wine (Add 50:50
Fizzy Water to Wine)
||1.5kg Cranberries or
5 Litres of Juice
|500g Raisins||800g||1/2 tsp|
|Date Wine||1kg Stoned Dates||250g Raisins|
|Elderberry Wine (Fresh Berries)||1.5kg of Fresh Elderberries & 7g Oak Chips||700g||1 tsp||1 tsp|
|Elderberry Wine (Dried Berries)||300g Dried Elderberries & 7g Oak Chips||300g Raisins||700g||1 tsp||1 ½ tsp|
|Fig Wine||1 kg Dried Figs||250g Raisins||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp|
|Gooseberry Wine||1.5kg of Gooseberries||250ml white grape concentrate||700g||1 tsp|
|Grape Wine||7kg squashed grapes!||500g||1 tsp||1 tsp||Yes|
|Jalapeno Wine||12 fresh Jalapenos (Pureed)||500g Raisins||800g||1 tsp||1 ½ tsp|
|Peach Wine||2 kg Stoned Peaches||250ml white grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 ½ tsp||¼ tsp|
|Parsnip Wine||1.8 kg parsnips (boiled) & 1 ripe banana||250ml white grape concentrate||1kg||1 tsp||2 lemons, zest & juice||1/2 tsp|
|Mixed Berry Wine (Frozen)||1kg Blueberries, 200g Raspberries, 800g Summer Fruits||250ml red grape concentrate||700g||1 tsp|
|Pear Cider||2 Kg Pears & 2 Litres Apple Juice||300g||3 tsp|
|Pear Cider||4 Kg Pears||400g||4 tsp|
|Pear Wine||2 Kg Pears||250 ml white grape concentrate||800g||4 tsp||1 tsp||Yes|
|Plum Wine||2kg Stoned Plumbs||250 ml red grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||¼ tsp|
|Pineapple||1.5 litres pineapple juice||600g||1 tsp||¼ tsp|
|Redcurrant Wine||1.5 2kg Redcurrants||250 ml red grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp|
|Rhubarb Wine||1 kg Chopped Rhubarb (15 Stalks) (+ the sugar only for 3 days)||250ml white grape concentrate||1kg Sugar|
|Rosehip Wine||1 kg Rosehips||800g to 1kg||1 tsp||Yes & Lemon Zest||Tea|
|Strawberry Wine||2 Kg Strawberries||250 ml red grape concentrate||800g||1/2 tsp||1 tsp||1/8 tsp|
|Tea Wine||1 litre of tea (no milk)! PG tip or Fruit tea!||250ml white grape concentrate||800g||1 tsp||1 tsp||Yes|
||2 litres watermelon juice||450g||1 tsp||2 ½ tsp||1/8 tsp|
Tea Bag Wine (To
add to flat / dull wines lacking tannin)
A dry tea wine is useful for blending with
other wines that may seem a little flat or dull, due to low tannin content.
10 teabags, depending on the strength desired. If flavouring/aroma is desired, add additional 4 herbal or fruit flavoured tea bags of your choice.
250g chopped raisins or sultanas
1 medium orange, well washed and chopped in a food processor
1 lemon, well washed and chopped in a food processor
50ml Steen's Pure Cane Syrup OR 100ml pure maple syrup
1kg. white sugar
1/2 tsp. acid blend
1 tsp. yeast nutrient
1 tsp. pectic enzyme
1 campden tablets, crushed
Dissolve all of group B in 50ml warm water.
Day 1: Make 2 litres of tea with ingredients from group A. First bring water to a rolling boil and then add the tea bags. Allow to steep for about an hour or until water has cooled to around 30'C. Remove the tea bags. Add remaining Group A and all of group B ingredients. Stir mixture until everything is dissolved. Transfer all of this mixture, including fruit pulp, into a primary fermenter and top up with boiled cooled water. Cover fermenter with plastic lid or Saran Wrap and allow to rest overnight in a dark place.
50ml warm (not hot) tap water. Add 1 packet of wine yeast to water. Allow yeast to rehydrate for 30 minutes in just water. Then add a small pinch of yeast nutrient.
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. sugar
Leave it alone for a few hours to start working.
Day 2: Prepare group C. Give this about
4 hours to come alive and pitch into primary fermenter. Gently stir the
mixture and cover.
Days 3 to 6: Punch down must and very gently
stir mixture daily.
Day 7: Strain the must into a demijohn or
demijohn; top up to the shoulder with cooled boiled water.
Beyond: Ferment to dry. Rack when necessary
and add a crushed campden tablet at each racking. Make all required SG,
and pH checks throughout the entire process. Leave to clear before bottling.
Sparkalloid works well for clearing. Add potassium sorbate / campden tablet
prior to finishing.